Awnings are a great way to create outdoor living space perfect for entertaining and enjoying fresh air. Whether shielding from sun, rain, wind or snow, an awning can make many types of weather conditions enjoyable. However, awnings call for particular safety attention, depending on what types of activities are going on in your outdoor space.
Barbecues and outdoor cooking:
It is important to consider proximity to barbecues and other outdoor cooking devices such as chimneys or fire pits. In Burlington, residents are allowed to have small, confined cooking fires if they are supervised at all times and used to cooking food on a grill. Outdoor fire pits, chimneys and other portable devices that are intended for backyard bonfires are not permitted without an open air burn permit.
That being said, even small cooking fires require special attention if they are in close proximity to an outdoor awning. Retractable awnings are a higher risk awning because they are made with a waterproof fabric. Suitable for both windows and doors, this type of awning is seen most commonly in backyards. Luckily, the retractable feature makes it easy to tuck away if you plan to BBQ or cook over a small fire. Fixed aluminum awnings are not at risk of catching fire from an unattended open flame. However, they can melt when exposed to extremely hot temperatures.
Prevention is key:
Preventing any accidents are top priority when it comes to fire safety. With this in mind, there are a couple of factors to consider before you choose to barbecue over an open flame.
1. If your awning is retractable, tuck it away before any fire or barbecue is lit.
2. Observe the premises. Are there bushes or trees that easily connect your fire or barbecue back to your awning or home. Make sure that the area is clear above and around your designated area.
3. Weather conditions are important. High winds make an open flame extremely risky, as well as extreme dryness, so try to avoid open air burning in these instances.
4. Smoke is dangerous too. Any fire in an enclosed space can create an uncomfortable environment, and breathing can become a real challenge. Ensure that smoke is not being captured under or around your awning to avoid the dangers of excessive smoke.
We don’t recommend barbecuing under an awning for one main reason and that is carbon monoxide poisoning. Carbon monoxide is an invisible and scentless gas that can become trapped under an awning. While you may think the open air would send the carbon monoxide into the atmosphere, it could be funneling it into your home through an open window. This is how several people died around Burlington during the ice storm of December 2013. People barbecued or ran generators in their garage, which ended up sending gas into the house’s crawlspaces, and eventually into bedrooms where people died in their sleep.
We at Jans Awning Products want you to have decades of enjoyment under your awnings. Contact us today to have us install an awning you can enjoy while you watch your food barbecue from a safe distance away.
Winter truly is a bittersweet season. Along with that warm holiday glow comes cold nights, shorter days, snow, ice, and wind! Keeping your home as warm and dry as possible will dramatically increase your chances of having an enjoyable winter. Winterizing your home can sometimes be a big project, but with a few small improvements you can be coming home to a warm and dry house every single day.
Start With New Doors and Windows!
An enormous amount of heat is lost every winter through inefficient, poorly installed, or simply old doors and windows. Today’s energy efficient windows have been built with the intention of not only reducing heat loss, but also helping you save on your heating bill while reducing your impact on the environment. At Jans Awning Products, we help homeowners install new doors and windows all year round that keep their home cool in the summer and warm in the winter. We carry the North Star line of quality vinyl windows, and specialize in bay and bow windows. North Star windows have been specially designed to thrive under Ontario’s harsh weather conditions, while also looking fantastic!
You can see all of our Window options here. Alternatively, consider installing some storm windows. Did you know that simply installing a storm window can increase the efficiency of your windows by up to 45%? Storm windows act by sealing up drafts and reducing the loss of heat from the inside of your home.
Schedule a Furnace Inspection
The best time to schedule a furnace inspection is before you even need it! During a furnace inspection, a professional heating specialist will do everything from change the filters of your furnace, to check the electric connections, and make sure the emergency shutdown and startup functions are working properly. They will also calibrate the temperature controls and help you program the settings to suit your heating preferences and schedule. The most important part of a furnace inspection is changing or cleaning the filters. These filters are what keep your furnace operating efficiently and safely.
Seal Up Gaps with Caulking and Weather-Stripping
Even the smallest of gaps can lead to a horrendous amount of heat loss. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, these gaps around doors and windows can lead to between 5-30% of lost energy efficiency every single year! Take a close look at the areas where two different building materials meet, such as in corners, chimneys, where wires enter and exit your home, and all along the foundation. To find areas where you might be losing heat, use a stick of incense. Move a stick of lit incense along the exterior walls of your home, wherever the smoke of the incense wavers is where you are losing heat.
Lastly, make sure that your home is well insulated! Attics, garages, and basements are prime candidates for heat loss. Even if your home already has insulation in these areas, simply adding more can get your home even warmer!
To learn more about how our awning and window products can have your home warmer by winter time, contact Jans Awning Products today!
Sliding patio doors allow a tremendous amount of natural light to filter into the house and offer good access to the outdoors; however, when the glass in a patio door breaks, it needs to be replaced as soon as possible. You have the option of calling a glass company to come in and replace the pane or you can consider doing it yourself, which is significantly cheaper. It isn’t as big of a job as you might imagine and with the right instructions and a couple of hours of your time, you can get your patio door repaired. By following some simple steps to replace the glass in the patio door, you can get back to enjoying your view from the comfort of your home once again.
To successfully replace broken glass in a patio door you will need gloves, a hammer, pry bar, putty knife, measuring tape, permanent marker, replacement glass, glass cutter and caulk. You do not have to remove the entire door, but it is advisable to always wear gloves to prevent cuts from the glass.
You can replace the glass on sliding patio doors with the door in place. It doesn’t need to be removed. First remove the trim around the glass by using a putty knife between the trim and the door. Next, use a small pry bar and hammer to ease it off, carefully avoiding bending the trim as you work.
Removing the Glass
When you have finished removing the trim, take out the old glass from the sliding patio doors. Remove any bits and pieces that will inevitably remain stuck to the frame. You can use the putty knife to remove these remaining pieces and take off the caulk around the trim.
Once the opening is completely clear of any lingering debris, use a tape measure to calculate the size of replacement glass for the sliding patio doors. You need to measure both height and width of the opening. Now, subtract ¼-inch from each measurement to obtain the size to buy and go to any glass shop that will be able to cut to size.
Fitting the Glass
When the glass arrives give it a thorough inspection. Trim the edges if they are not completely straight. Gently scribe using a straight edge where needed using a glass cutter. Avoid making deep cuts because this can break the new glass. Check the measurements and the edges one more time to be certain that everything is straight and that the glass will fit the opening.
Finally, put a bead of caulking around the inside of the frame. Gently ease the glass into place and then put another thin bead of caulking on top of the glass. This will hold it against the trim.
Replacing the Trim
You can begin to start replacing the trim you’ve removed and push it back into place. Start at one corner and gently, but firmly press into place. After it is positioned in place, make it secure with tacks down into the door.
Finish up by removing any of the caulking with a putty knife that might have squeezed out under the trim. Clean the glass of the sliding patio doors with glass cleaner and then go outside and repeat the cleaning process there.
Congratulations! By this point you should have some brand new glass installed in your patio door and you have successfully saved yourself a good chunk of change in doing so. If you’re reading this you’re probably a DIY kind of person who loves to get into new home renovations. Lucky for you Jans Awning Products has a wide selection of products available for you to purchase and install yourself. Take a look at our selection of products or come in and visit us.
After your home, your vehicle is likely one of your larger investments. Keeping it protected from the elements is well worth the trouble. In Ontario, ice, hail, heavy rains, and snow can wreak havoc on both your car’s exterior and interior. But sometimes a garage simply isn’t an option. This is where Jans Awning Products aluminum patio covers come in handy. Not only are these versatile and durable coverings great for extending the life of your patio season but they also act as a fantastic carport cover.
Durable Aluminum Carport Covers
At Jans Awning Products we take quality seriously. Every single product that we offer our valuable clients is manufactured using the best materials, and diligently tested and re-tested to ensure its safety and durability. Our aluminum carport and patio covers are no different. Our aluminum roofing products are constructed using a Duraform Roof System. This means that they come equipped with all the necessary features you need in a roof. For example built in gutters, and a thermally broken rear shelf. Our team of engineers have developed a product that is as safe and durable as it is versatile. With an aluminum carport cover from Jans Awning Products you can be confident knowing that your vehicle is safe from the elements. Better yet, you won’t have to spend hours this winter shoveling snow off your car!
Custom Aluminum Carport Covers
Not only are all of our products made with the best possible materials, but they are also customizable. No two carports are alike. This is why we offer custom aluminum carport covers. Our qualified team will start by scheduling a complimentary consultation to assess your carport and suggest possible aluminum roof applications. We’ll draw up the designs and help you pick the best option for your lifestyle, space, and budget. An aluminum roof offers a huge amount of versatility and customization. We can easily adapt to abnormal spaces, chimneys, patio spaces, and pre-existing structures to create a convenient covered carport.
1200 and 1201 Series Aluminum Carport Covers
Jans Awning Products offers two aluminum cover options: The 1200 Series and the 1201 Series. Both of these options offer the same quality and durability. The 1200 Series is the most commonly used product. In addition to its impressive durability it is also capable of bearing weight. Its strength is increased with a clever tongue and groove installation combined with a polystyrene installation, and finished with stucco. Meanwhile, the 1201 Series is suited well for even larger spans. It has all of the features offered in the 1200 Series as well as a thermally broken “I” beam joining the polyurethane or polystyrene roof panels. It too is finished with stucco. Both the 1200 and the 1201 Series come with a built in gutter, optional skylights, and a maintenance free guarantee!
To learn more about using our aluminum roofs for your carport, or to schedule your complimentary consultation contact Jans Awning Products today!
Making sure that you have a reliable, well maintained roof over your head is a pretty crucial part of being a homeowner. In fact, it’s one of the most important. At Jan’s Awnings Products we know that! We are committed to making sure that all of our clients receive not only the best quality materials but superior client care. Our aluminum patio roofs are no exception.
Aluminum Patio Roof Durability
At Jan’s Awnings, we pride ourselves in our uncompromising use of quality materials. When it comes to aluminum patio roofs we use embossed-aluminum clad insulated roof systems. The built-in eaves troughs and optional skylights take the guess work out of home maintenance. Our aluminum patio roofs are called the Duraform Roof System. These incredibly durable, and versatile patio roofs also offer a thermally broken rear shelf.
The Duraform Roof System Advantage
Your patio is a personal space, an oasis even! It is where you entertain, where you relax, where memories are made and where you just escape from it all. A Duraform Roof System from Jan’s extends your patio season by weeks, even months! Imagine not having to wait for the perfect cloudless sunny day to enjoy your patio. Instead, your patio can become an all season space for you and your family. Each and every one of our Duraform Roof Systems can be customized and tailored to fit any space. If you have an irregularly shaped patio, fear not! The expert installation team at Jan’s Awning Products has years of experience customizing our Duraform Roof Systems to fit even the most awkward spaces.
Aluminum Patio Roof Maintenance
Since 1966, Jans Awning Products has been providing Burlington and the surrounding area with superior service. Residents in Burlington and southwestern Ontario love spending time outdoors. And with so many homes with waterfront access, finding a patio roof solution that can withstand the elements is important. One of the most convenient advantages of the Duraform Roof System is its low maintenance upkeep and incredible durability. Aluminum patio roofs are a permanent, hard top roofing system that looks fantastic alongside most home styles. You can be confident with your investment knowing that it will look brand new for years to come.
Duraform Roof Systems look fantastic alongside our Trex Composite Decking. Not only does an aluminum patio roof look fantastic, but it’s also up to the job. These load bearing roofs feature tongue and groove panels that enhance its strength and durability. Using an embossed, aluminum clad product that is insulated with polystyrene, we can assure you the Duraform Roof System is up to the job.
Duraform Roof System Versatility
Aluminium Patio roofs from Jan’s Awning Products can be customized to provide shelter on an attached patio, or act as a stand alone structure in backyard recreation areas. Aluminum patio shelters are a great addition to outdoor kitchens, and gardening spaces. By protecting yourself from the elements you can enjoy the space all year round!
To learn more about Jan’s Duraform Roof System and all of our aluminum patio roof products, contact Jans Awning Products today!
Not only are railings an essential safety feature for your home or business, but they also add personality! We love to consider railings as the final touch on your already gorgeous home. With so many different styles available, you can customize your safety features to meld seamlessly into your home.
JANS’ Quality Material
Did you know that all of the railings made by JANS Awning Products are made from aluminum and cast aluminum? So not only will they look great, but they will also be rust free, and maintenance free for years to come! Not only are the railings themselves made from the best quality of materials, but so are all of the fasteners. By using stainless steel fasteners, we can guarantee that your railing is going to look brand new for years to come.
Glass Panelled Railings
From 20th floor condos to suburban backyards, glass panelled railings are a safe, versatile, and beautiful design choice. Living in a condo often means that your access to the great outdoors is just a little bit further away. While rooftop patios and outdoor recreation are always close by, there’s nothing like enjoying a relaxing afternoon on your very own balcony. Glass panelled railings allow you to extend the look of your balcony without adding extra space.
Each of our glass panelled railings have been tested by our engineers to ensure they surpass the requirements of the Ontario building code. JANS’ glass panelled railings blend expertly into a wide variety of home styles. Whether you are looking for the perfect railing to add to your second floor deck, or around your outdoor kitchen, glass panelled railings lend an effortlessly sophisticated effect. JANS Awning Products offers glass panelled railings in a wide variety of colours and finishes.
Double Bar Railings
At JANS Awning Products, we take the traditional double bar railings and add contemporary, quality materials and craftsmanship. The benefit of double bar railings is their versatility. Unlike glass panelled railings, double bar railings are capable of adapting to more uniquely sized spaces. We love using double bar railings on winding staircases, and curved steps leading towards front doors. Within the double bar railing category, there are a huge amount of varieties. Ornate mouldings, intricate designs, bowed spindles, and more. Each and every one of our railings can be customized to suit your space and design preferences.
JANS’ Patio Railings
Your patio is one of your favourite places to spend time. It’s where your family and your friends get together to soak up what remains of the summer! At JANS Awning Products, we know how important it is to keep everyone safe while they spend time outdoors. Our glass panelled and double bar railings, are made from durable aluminum alloy and will get the job done. Whether you are looking to enclose a small space or a large space, our sophisticated railings are expertly crafted, installed, and are virtually maintenance free! So all you have to do is fire up the barbecue.
To learn more about our railings and services, contact us today!
A little routine care and awning cleaning will increase the durability of your awnings. Awnings require proper maintenance. Some awnings are made of mildew resistant materials. However, this does not mean that they don’t require the occasional cleaning. If you allow dirt to accumulate on a canvas awning, it can lead to the growth of mildew and mould. Mould poses some serious health risk. Also it affects the aesthetic appeal of your awning by leaving ugly stains on the fabric.
Clean your awnings once a month
The easiest and most effective way of cleaning your awnings is to hose them with water. This ritual has to be performed every month. Routine cleaning will prevent dirt from getting accumulated deep inside the fabric. If, on the other hand, you allow dirt to embed within the fabric, you will need more robust cleaning strategies.
That said, there is a limit to what you can accomplish by giving your awnings a monthly rinse. They will need a thorough cleaning every 2 to 3 years.
How to clean your awnings
Depending upon the type and size of the awnings you have, you will probably have to remove them from their frame to clean them. Some awnings, however, can be cleaned while they are still on the frame. Some awning fabrics can be machine washed. Use mild soaps and lukewarm or cold water to wash the fabric in a washing machine. After washing the fabric, don’t forget to air dry it. Be sure to follow the manufacturer’s instructions carefully while cleaning the awning fabric.
The awning fabric can be cleaned while it is still on its frame. In this case, start the cleaning process by brushing off the loose debris or dirt. After removing the dirt, hose down the awning fabric with water. Prepare a cleaning solution of mild soap and water. Apply the cleaning solution to the awning fabric. Clean the fabric gently with a brush. Using cold water rinse the fabric thoroughly and let it air dry.
How to clean the underside
The top of the awning is constantly exposed to the weather elements. Dirt, cobwebs and dust can also get deposited on the underside. The underside of the awning should be brushed regularly with a broom. This simple strategy will keep your awning in good condition.
Repair wear and tear
Canvas awnings should be kept away from shrubs, trees and vines. Plants produce an acid which can damage the awning fabric. Constant exposure to this acid will affect the performance and appearance of your awning.
Check the awning fabric routinely for small tears or rips. Remember that if small tears are not repaired, they will eventually become large. So close the tears as soon as you spot them with a repair tape.
Take care when it’s cold and wet
Your awnings need protection from cold temperatures. Canvas awnings may suffer damage when they are rolled or unrolled in winter.
Water pooling can cause canvas to stretch. This will eventually lead to a poor fit on the frame. After a downpour inspect the awning to see if water has pooled in any of its pockets. If so, push the underside of the awning with a broom. This will remove standing water.
A little routine maintenance will go a long way in keeping your awnings in good shape for years to come.
Click here for more information on awning cleaning and for specific recommendations on removing a variety of stains.
Ahh, summertime. The best time of the year in Burlington, Ontario. The days are long, the evenings cool, and the bugs out in full force! You don’t have to let pesky bugs dictate your evening plans though. Use Roll Screens from Jans Awnings to create the backyard oasis of your dreams. Start by browsing our Roll Screen gallery to get inspired for your next project!
A roll screen is a retractable screen that can be customized for every setting. It can be raised or lowered in just moments allowing you to enjoy the sun without the bugs. Jans Awnings and Products provides custom roll screen installation for spaces up to 20 feet using the Talius Roll Screen. Roll Screens from Jans Awnings are available in a wide range of colours, and styles. We guarantee that we can find you the perfect screen for inside and outside your home or workplace! In addition to the traditional manual crank, we also offer electric motorized controls that make using your Roll Screen even easier! This is the ideal solution for those with mobility concerns, or those who just love the convenience this offers!
Roll Screen for Backyard Patios
So, you have built the backyard patio, installed the outdoor kitchen, bought the patio furniture and scheduled your very first barbeque! Unfortunately, the bugs also received an invitation. During the summertime, bugs and insects in Burlington are inevitable. Hot days and warm evenings are just too perfect a climate for these opportunistic pests. But, fear not. A Roll Screen from Jans Awnings can dramatically increase the enjoyment you receive from your outdoor living space. All of our Roll Screen are equipped with a sophisticated screen edge retention system. This is designed to keep your screen in place on even the windiest days! Furthermore, our Roll Screens come in dozens of colours, sizes, and styles that are sure to compliment your space perfectly. The beauty of a Roll Screen is that it keeps the bugs out, without blocking your valuable sunlight.
Roll Screens for Apartment Balconies
Roll Screen are especially useful for balconies in apartments and condos. They prevent premature fading on your expensive patio furniture, and also shade the occupants from the potentially harmful sunrays. With a Roll Screen on your balcony, you can feel comfortable using this fantastic outdoor space even longer each and every year. Imagine, sitting on your balcony as the sun sets of Burlington, a glass of wine in hand, and not a bug in site! At Jans Awnings, we use the highest quality Roll Screen available in the industry. Our Talius Habitat Screens protect you from UV damage, while providing you with comfort and privacy without forcing you to compromise on your fantastic view. Make the most of your outdoor living space with a Roll Screen from Jans Awnings. It’s not too late to schedule your summer Roll Screen installation! Call us today at 905-335-3733, or inquire through our website.
One of the most common reasons that homeowners landscape property lines is simply to create a line of demarcation along a boundary. In doing so, there is always a clear understanding where your property ends and your neighbour’s begins. The mutual goal for landscaping the property line is to create privacy and security. This aim can be accomplished in many different ways using various options.
Based upon your aspirations for the end result, you may have to decide on whether a privacy fence is right for you in creating your distinctive line of demarcation, but border plantings can have a similar effect as well depending on the species. Perhaps you would like to incorporate both to some degree so there is a blend of hardline definition along with a softer look of beauty and colour. You may want to consider even using a deck, patio and garden off the main house for boundary separation. Seldom do we think of awnings as property boundaries, but depending on the direction the house sits in relation to your next door neighbour, an awning can help to define that separation when surrounded by your landscape.
Evergreen shrubs are both an attractive and a practical way for landscaping property lines because they provide foliage to admire all four seasons of the year. In addition to their visual good looks, they offer homeowners year-round privacy. Even though their name suggests “evergreen”, don’t think that you’re restricted to the colour green because some species offer colours that will make your property line shimmer with gold. They can be planted as hedges that can be trimmed for a formal look or left to grow according to their natural patterns and growth cycle.
Fast Growing Shrubs for Screening & Colour:
When you don’t have time on your side to achieve your privacy screening, you might want to consider selecting fast-growing shrubs that will produce the desired effect in a hurry. Shrubs like Lilac, Forsythia, Rose of Sharon and Mock Orange are steady growers that put on a beautiful and bountiful display of accent for your property flowering shrubs.
As any good landscaper will tell you, a combination of evergreen and flowering shrubs can offer you the best of both worlds for landscaping property lines. With a little thought ahead of time and planning, you can some grow enough evergreens to block the public’s gaze, while having enough colours dispersed throughout for an eye-catching boundary display.
A well-manicured hedge is ideal for forming a partition that replicates a wall. The wall of green offers homeowners a good middle ground for those people who crave their privacy but dislike fences. Unlike mixed borders, a hedge gives the appearance of straight line lines and even surface with a formality and crispness of a hardscape feature. Hedges require more upkeep to maintain their uniform and distinguished appearance, but it’s worth the effort to have your property line defined.
Trees are a popular plant choice in landscaping property lines. In addition to offering privacy, trees are natural insulators and windbreakers. For a tree to be effective near a street, a tree must be pollution tolerant, such as being able to survive the onslaught of road salt. Additionally, some species grow to be quite large, so consider what impact this will have on your property and your neighbour. If size is an issue, a dwarf tree might be a good alternative dwarf trees.
As the old saying goes, good fences make good neighbours, this particularly holds true when discussing property lines. There are numerous fencing options available for landscaping property lines and your final selection will depend on what you wish to achieve. While some are meant for total privacy, others are more ornamental in their design; however, both will provide a distinct demarcation between you and your neighbour.
A stone wall is another landscaping technique to draw attention to a boundary or property line. If fences, bushes and trees are disqualified for any number of reasons, such as cost or maintenance, a stone wall may be suitable for your property. You have the choice of complementing it with growing vines or leave it as a stand-alone attraction, but either way, it will make a definitive statement. Jans Awning Products in Burlington installs awnings, windows, patio roofs and canopies which are meant to enhance your outdoor living experience. If you live in the Burlington area, contact Jans Awning Products today for more information.
Enjoying the great outdoors this summer is better when you have installed a beautiful awing. It’s a treat to be in the shade during those hot summer days. But what to do when your awning has aged is wearing and faded and now needs to be recovered? It’s easy! Just contact the professionals at Jan’s Awning Products. A recover project is simple and professionally done when you use modern fabric like that from Sunbrella, Dickson, Symprol and Swela. This modern fabric is durable and sun resistant. It is the perfect candidate for awning recovering.
The shade structure made using our recommended fabrics offers more than just extended space. It also protects from the sun’s harmful rays and lowers your energy bills. Overall shade is a smart choice.
An awning can be a way to add a burst of colour to your space. Or if you are looking for your awning to blend in, match the fabric with your home. Also keep in mind your furniture’s colour palette – both inside and out. Your awning will be visible from inside your home, so be sure your fabric choice looks just as good from the inside.
As long as the frame of your awning is in good condition, recovering your awning is an easy process. Whether you have a retractable awning or a fixed-frame awning; recovering your awning with new fabric from our recommended suppliers is an excellent choice.
We provide a wide range of incredibly stylish and durable options to recover your awning. This gives you worry-free living knowing that your new awning cover is the best quality available. All of our awning fabrics offer superior fade and stain resistance. The fabrics also clean easily and quickly. This gives you more time for what matters, enjoying your outdoor living. With over 200 patterns and colour available to choose from, you are certain to find a fabric that suits your tastes and your needs.
Now that you have recovered your awning, how do you care for your new fabric? Your new awning fabric should be cleaned regularly. Substances such as dirt and pollen can accumulate over time and become embedded in the fabric. That makes regular cleaning important. You can clean the fabric without removing it from the awning. You can easily brush off any loose dirt then clean with luke-warm water and a mild natural soap. Prepare a cleaning solution of water and mild soap such as Woolite or Dawn dishwashing liquid. Use a soft bristle brush to clean. Allow the cleaning solution to soak into the fabric. Then simply rinse thoroughly with a garden hose to rinse all the soap from the awning. If you are using liquid soap it may be necessary to reapply a water repellant treatment such as Fabric Guard. This is available at your local hardware store or through Jan’s Awning Products. If you have stubborn stains you can use a diluted bleach/soap mixture for spot cleaning of mildew. For roof run-off or other similar stains a strong degreaser may be required.
If you have anymore questions about awning recovery or if you want your awning’s recovered right and last for years to come then Contact Us for any and all of your awning needs.